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Get to know the Essentials of S4D!

What we describe as the “Essentials” of S4D are the basic aspects of our work. You will find out how sport can contribute to the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs), how people, organisations and societies can develop in their capabilities in S4D and which competences can be gained and developed.You will get an idea why monitoring and evaluation (M&E) is a core task in our projects and you will discover the partner organisations that we are working with.

Not enough? More resources are provided, if you want to go deeper into the subject matter. 


Sport creates new chances!



Sport has proven to be a cost-effective and flexible tool in promoting peace and development goals. Internationally, the approach that sport can contribute towards the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) has received increasing attention over the last decade. In 2003, the United Nations (UN) General Assembly adopted the resolution (58/3): ‘Sport, as a means to promote education, health, development and peace’. It calls on its Member States to use sport more intensively to achieve development goals. Two years later, 2005 was declared as the International Year of Sports and Physical Education by the UN.

Since the inception of the eight Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) in 2000, sport has played a vital role in enhancing each of the eight goals, a fact which has been recognized in numerous Resolutions of the General Assembly. In the Declaration of the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development, the role of sport for social progress is further acknowledged (UN, 2014):

"Sport is also an important enabler of sustainable development. We recognize the growing contribution of sport to the realization of development and peace in its promotion of tolerance and respect and the contributions it makes to the empowerment of women and of young people, individuals and communities as well as to health, education and social inclusion objectives."

Driven by the past success of S4D activities and programmes across multiple sectors, sport will continue to advance global development assisting in the work towards, and the realization of, the SDGs. After giving you an overall definition about S4D, you will find a collection of SDGs below, where sport can make a potential contribution. 

In the Learning Lab, you will find further information about our self-learning course "Introduction to S4D" on atingi. 

SDG3  Ensure healthy lives and promote well-being for all at all ages

“Through sport, individuals can adopt active lifestyles that enhance well-being, health and prevent diseases, particularly non-communicable diseases. Sport can be a successful tool for health education and awareness raising towards healthy lives, especially among hard-to-reach or vulnerable individuals and communities such as refugees.” (UNOSDP)

The potential contribution of sport to ensure ‘good health and well-being’:

  • Providing health benefits in general (e.g. reduced risk of heart disease, stroke, diabetes and cancer; control and prevention of obesity)
  • Improving mental health and well-being
  • Effecting a positive child and adolescent development
  • Raising awareness in terms of ‘health messages’

Potential contributions to SDG3 can be put into practice with the following S4D Activities: 

Ensure inclusive and equitable quality education and promote lifelong learning opportunities for all

“Sport and physical education can motivate children and youth to attend and engage in formal and informal education, as well as improve academic performance and learning outcomes. Sport can teach transferable life skills and key values such as tolerance, inclusion and can lead towards learning opportunities beyond school.” (UNOSDP)

The potential contribution of sport toward ‘quality education’:

  • Engaging learners
  • Providing various learning experiences
  • Modelling of positive teaching styles
  • Re-connecting young people to formal learning environments
  • Providing more inclusive learning environments 
  • Strengthening relationships between teachers and learners

Potential contributions to SDG4 can be put into practice with the following S4D Activities:

SDG 5 Achieve gender equality & empower all women and girls 
“Sport can contribute to the elimination of discrimination against women and girls by empowering individuals, particularly women, and equipping them with knowledge and skills needed to progress in society. Sport can advocate for gender equality, address constricting gender norms, and provide inclusive safe spaces.” (UNOSDP)

The potential contribution of sport toward ‘gender equality’:

  • Promoting female leaders and roles models
  • Raising awareness on gender issues
  • Providing safe spaces for women and girls
  • Challenging gender stereotypes
  • Engaging men and boys with gender issues 

Potential contributions to SDG5 can be put into practice with the following S4D Activities:

SDG 8Promote sustained, inclusive and sustainable economic growth, full and productive employment and decent work for all

“Sport can promote inclusive and sustainable economic growth by aligning production and employment with labour standards, in particular being free from child or forced labour and discriminations of all forms. It can create job opportunities for all and develop employability enhancing skills which are transferrable into the workplace.” (UNOSDP)

The potential contribution of sport toward ‘decent work and economic growth’:

  • Promoting employment and vocational competences
  • Connecting young people to vocational education settings
  • Supporting growing labour markets in the sports industry

Potential contributions to SDG8 can be put into practice with the following S4D Activities:

SDG 9Build resilient infrastructure, promote inclusive and sustainable industrialization and foster innovation

“Sport can encourage innovative approaches to industrialization and inspire innovation. It can contribute to equitable access for all by providing accessible sport infrastructure and spaces. Sport can also support building and reconstruction of resilient infrastructure, including sport facilities.” (UNOSDP)

The potential contribution of sport toward ‘industry, innovation and infrastructure’: 

  • Serving as a platform to facilitate the renovation  and construction of sports grounds as well as local capacity development
  • Generating enhancement in the overall community involvement, and motivating the mobilization of the wider community and the growth of economic activities associated with sport
  • Providing strategies for sustainable action regarding the maintenance of sports grounds and the delivery of S4D activities.

SDG 10Reduce inequalities within and among countries

"Sport can advocate for equality, diversity and inclusion of all irrespective of age, sex, race, ethnicity, origin, sexual orientation, gender identity, religion, economic or other status. It can be a successful tool for tackling inequality in hard-to-reach areas and for empowering individuals and communities." (UNOSDP)

The potential contribution of sport toward 'reducing inequalities':

  • promoting equality and serving  as a platform to promote the value of diversity
  • being used for the inclusion of all irrespective of age, sex, race, ethnicity, origin, sexual orientation, gender identity, religion, physical or mental abilties or economic or other status
  • sport events or stadia can serve as stages for human behaviour becoming platforms for human rights based inclusiveness and respect for diversity
  • raising awareness towards existent inequalities and establishing sport-related policies and programmes aimed at reducing them
  • being used as tool for tackling inequality in areas and populations that are difficult to reach; tackling prejudice and intolerance by promoting tolerance and pro-social behaviour instead

Potential contributions to SDG10 can be put into practice with the following S4D Activities:

SDG 11Make cities and human settlements inclusive, safe, resilient and sustainable

“Sport can help eliminate obstacles and barriers in the environment, transportation, public facilities and services to ensure access by all, including people facing those barriers and in vulnerable situations such as persons with disabilities. It can also promote the use of public safe spaces where diverse populations can interact and create friendly relations.” (UNOSDP)

The potential contribution of sport toward ‘sustainable cities and communities’:

  • Providing an inclusive, safe and accessible space and/or a place for public encounters
  • Establishing new and safe spaces/places for different groups in urban settings
  • Using major sporting events as catalyst for sustainable urban design and planning

SDG 13Take urgent actions to combat climate change and its impacts

"Sport can contribute to combating climate change, for instance through sport-based projects aimed at supporting the relief of communities and reconstruction of facilities in natural disaster recovery. It can also raise awareness on climate change by transmitting messages on its impacts and encourage action in this context." (UNOSDP)

The potential contribution of sport toward 'climate action':

  • offering opportunities for awareness raising and information sharing, including sustainable development and naturefriendly lifestyles
  • being a platform to promote the responsible use of natural resources
  • encouraging sustainable tourism and lifestyles as well as sustainable tourism products and services for instance in host cities of sport events

Potential contributions to SDG13 can be put into practice with the following S4D Activities:

Promote peaceful and inclusive societies for sustainable development, provide access to justice for all and build effective, accountable and inclusive institutions at all levels

“Sport provides a powerful communication platform for disseminating solidarity and reconciliation messages and fostering a culture of peace and dialogue, especially by promoting core values in sport such as respect, fair-play and team work. Sport institutions can be effective, accountable and inclusive by respecting human rights and striving for good governance.” (UNOSDP)

The potential contribution of sport toward ‘peace, justice and strong institutions’:

  • Promoting peaceful and inclusive societies
  • Preventing conflicts, reducing tension
  • Establishing of platforms for dialogue
  • Generating respect and understanding
  • Addressing abuse, violence and exploitation in sport

Potential contributions to SDG16 can be put into practice with the following S4D Activities:


In order for sport to make a meaningful contribution to the SDGs, exercises need to be used in modified ways that explicitly and intentionally develop life skills/competences of participants. To help with the development of such activities, S4D Coaches must take into account the 5 Principles of S4D. Keep in mind: S4D can only develop its full potential if all principles are considered and employed.  

You will find all 5 Principles on the poster "The 5 Principles of S4D".

Appropriate educational goals are essential when developing the sporting and life skills/competences of youth participants. Put simply, the activities chosen by a coach as part of an S4D training session should neither be too easy nor too difficult for participants. They must always be adjusted to the personal and sociocultural context and background of youth participants in an attempt to manage diversity.     


Capacity development (CD) is a core task of development cooperation. German Development Cooperation (GIZ) understands CD as the development of the capability of people, organisations and societies to manage resources effectively and efficiently in order to realise their own goals on a sustainable basis (GIZ, 2015). CD should take place on three levels: individually, organisationally and on societal level. If you want to learn more about the different levels and their relation to S4D, have a look at the following publications:

The sport-pedagogical qualification of coaches and instructors at the individual level is the main component of our advanced education and training programmes in the field of S4D.

The Guideline "Ensuring Quality Education in S4D" describes a model to ensure a high-quality education and sustainable CD processes at the individual level within S4D programmes, which in turn improves projects in general. It contains the description of the mentioned phases as well as accompanying monitoring and evaluation (M&E) activities.

The Manual/Guideline "Coaches and Instructors" explores the roles and responsibilities of coaches and instructors. It gives orientation for selecting the right candidates for these positions, and finally offers a standard for the implementation of S4D workshops for coaches and instructors, where those candidates learn how to apply S4D in practice.

The CD Guidelines in our Learning Lab will support you in implementing your own workshop activities focusing on different topics (Health, Gender Equality, Social Cohesion etc.). 

The purpose of organisational CD is to increase organisational learning, performance and flexibility (GIZ, 2015). In the context of S4D, advisory services are offered regarding integration of S4D into current structures, processes and programmes of organisations. 

The Guideline below adresses the embedding of S4D in the day-to-day work of an organization. It gives guidance in developing a S4D concept that fits to the individual essence of an organization.

The purpose of CD on societal level is to build legal, political and socioeconomic frameworks so that people, organisations and their networks can develop and raise their performance capability. The development and strengthening of cooperation between organisations and networks for knowledge exchange, coordination and co-production is also the focus (GIZ, 2015).

In the context of S4D, networks are established, developed, steered and strengthened by bringing together actors from different fields (e.g. ministries, NGOs, sport federations etc.). In terms of system development in the policy field, the embedding of S4D in policy papers, strategies, and action plans, as well as budgeting of umbrella organisations, ministries or national agencies is the aim and objective. 

On the organizational and societal level, scaling-up activities are crucial processes to guarantee sustainability of a programme/project. Scaling-up describes the design of a process within the project or after its completion in order to achieve a broad(er) impact. The aim of these activities is to disseminate successful concepts, approaches and methods beyond the individual project:

  • to a new level (e.g. to ministries at governmental level);
  • to a new unit on the same level (e.g. to other NGOs in other regions), and/or
  • to a new context, in another sector (e.g. S4D as part of health programmes).

Within our scaling-up activities in different S4D programmes in various countries, we developed some helpful guidelines and tools, which you can find here.


Sport is more than physical exercise; sport is about the personal and social development of young people. Sport activities, offered in a pedagogically valuable way, impart and strengthen different competences children and youth need in their daily lives. A necessary precondition for children and youth to develop competences are well-designed and well-conducted Sport for Development (S4D) activities delivered through coaches. Therefore, coaches must be trained by qualified instructors to develop the specific competences needed to deliver S4D activities.

To comprise the entire range of competences children and youth can gain in the field of S4D or coaches and instructors should have when working in the field of S4D, we developed clusters of S4D competences on different levels. The S4D competence frameworks include self, social, methodological/strategic and professional competences related to sport and related to S4D. Most of the competences are derived from our Teaching and Learning Material

Regarding to the topic several terms (life skills, competences/competencies, abilities) are used in different contexts. We decided to work with the term “competences” having its origin in pedagogy and psychology: “Competences are pedagogic skills that can be learned, cognitively anchored and therefore are knowledge-based skills and abilities that aim to accomplish successfully tasks and requirements in everyday and professional situations.” (Stangl, 2017)

In the following we will present the competences on the different levels. Additionally you’ll get an idea, how to put theory into practice; what means to make competences for children and youth part of a training session.

The following frameworks list competences children and youth gain when participating in well-designed and -conducted S4D training sessions. Derived from the fundamental clusters we developed specific competence clusters regarding to the different SDGs (e.g. health, gender, employability etc.) to accommodate to the various characteristics of the target groups and the social contexts the coaches work in.

The frameworks are not to be considered as complete and not all competences are automatically gained by all participants. However, the frameworks are a useful presentation of competences that may and could be gained by beneficiaries taking part in S4D activities.

The following frameworks give an overview on which competences are needed at the coaching level, to foster the development of competences on the level of beneficiaries. Derived from the fundamental clusters we developed specific competence clusters regarding to the different development goals (e.g. health, gender, employability etc.) to accommodate to the various characteristics of the target groups and the social contexts the coaches work in.

The competence frameworks are not to be considered as complete and not all competences are automatically acquired by all coaches. Overall, coaches should be qualified and empowered in their S4D competences through capacity development measures. In S4D workshops for coaches, the development of competences should be one of the most important teaching and learning objectives.

The following framework provides an overview of competences which are needed at the instructor level with regard to fostering the development of competences of coaches. Therefore the framework comprises predominantly abilities an instructor explicitly needs in relation to developing coaches’ competences. Furthermore it contains competences an instructor needs his-/herself when implementing instructing activities for coaches containing aspects of workshop presentation, adult teaching, organization, monitoring and reviewing etc. The framework is based on the presumption that an instructor already has a core set of self-competences, social competences, methodological competences and expertise in sport, sport pedagogy and S4D, which are not explicitly mentioned.

The competence framework is not to be considered as complete and not all competences are automatically acquired by all instructors. Overall, instructors should be qualified and empowered in their S4D competences through capacity development measures. In S4D workshops for instructors, the development of competences should be one of the most important teaching and learning objectives.

If applied in and educationally valuable way, personal, social and methodological/strategic competences are inherent components of sport itself. However, simply playing sports does not guarantee that children and youth will develop competences that lead to a positive development and will prepare them for the future. If the participation of children and youth in sport is to lead to positive development outcomes, the coach has to make an intentional effort to develop competences. Therefore, the development of competences has to be part of S4D activities and at best part of all training units as presented in the following example.

In the S4D TOPIC COLLECTION we present S4D activities that aim at fostering the development of competences referring to the topics gender, violence prevention, health and employability.

For detailed information about how you can facilitate the content from theory into practice have a look at the S4D Workshop for Instructors  Chapter. 


This section contains S4D activities, training sessions and training sequences conducted in different GIZ partner countries. They are carefully prepared for trainers and multipliers for their own use.

S4D activities are single exercises or games which intentionally give priority to development objectives.

S4D training sessions consist of several S4D activities whose learning objectives serve the aim of the training session. Training sessions aim at strengthening competences children and youth need in relation to the development objective chosen. S4D Training Sessions should always have learning objectives as well as reflection sessions (see S4D Reflection Guideline). Coaches should deliver them in a holistic and cyclical way (see S4D Training Session Cycle). You find a Planning and Reviewing Sheet for S4D Training Sessions here.

S4D training sequences contain several S4D training sessions whose objectives serve the overall aim of the sequence.

S4D activities are single exercises or games which intentionally give priority to development objectives.  An S4D training session should always foster the multidimensional development of the participants, i.e. the cognitive, social, physical and sport-related development.

S4D training sessions consist of several S4D activities whose learning objectives serve the aim of the training session. Training sessions aim at strengthening competences children and youth need in relation to the development objective chosen. S4D Training Sessions should always have learning objectives as well as reflection sessions (see S4D Reflection Guideline). Coaches should deliver them in a holistic and cyclical way (see S4D Training Session Cycle). You find a Planning and Reviewing Sheet for S4D Training Sessions here.


Within the S4D community, numerous Teaching and Learning Materials (manuals, toolkits, guide-lines, curricula etc.) have been created to address on several types of sports and games and with different development topics. The Teaching and Learning Materials developed by GIZ are addressed to coaches (i.e. coachs, teachers, social workers) and instructors in the areas of formal and informal education. They introduce and explain various S4D topics as well as methodological and didactical core aspects, such as the structure of a training session/of Physical Education (PE) classes, the function of coaches/teachers as role models, as well as the development phases of children and youth. Additionally, the materials outlines practical games and drills, as well as provides helpful recommendations to promote S4D competences. You will find the Teaching and Learning Materials here.


“Sport can pool resources, create synergies, and build multi-stakeholder networks and partnerships for sustainable development and peace goals by bringing together a wide variety of actors from different sectors.” (UN, 2014)

The long-term success of wide-ranging sport-related development programmes depends very much on finding viable strategies, people with the required skills and above all dedicated partners. In this regard, clubs, associations and non-governmental organisations (NGOs) are important stakeholders in the areas of sport and civil society. To further promote and harness the potential of sport to achieve development goals, partnerships should be established with international organisations and networks, and with sport institutions. In order to multiply capacities and expertise in S4D, we are working with various partners in different countries all over the world.

Strengthen the means of implementation and revitalize the global partnership for sustainable development

“The 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development, and SDG17, similarly and more broadly recognise the need for collective approaches that bring together governments, the private sector and civil society in implementing the SDGs.” (Commonwealth, 2017, p. 17)

Through sport, new cooperation arrangements with partners from government, civil society, business and the academic world who spread the message of S4D within their own organisations can be forged in a range of ways. In our projects and programmes we are always working in multi-stakeholder partnerships in order to create synergies and to guarantee exchange.

In general, Government bodies and related institutions can help to establish the S4D message on committees from local to international level and include sport in their policies and development cooperation toolbox.

  • The German Federal Ministry for Economic Cooperation and Development (BMZ) uses the S4D approach to contribute to the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) like gender equality, good health, quality education and decent work. The BMZ is working with lots of different partners in this field and is supporting tighter networking among these actors so that even better use can be made of their experience and know-how.
  • The Ministry of Foreign Affairs and the Federal Ministry of the Interior are further German government bodies supporting the S4D approach. They are  part of the German Expert Group in S4D. Meetings of the Expert Group take place 1-2 times per year together with partners from the sports sector, civil society and research in order to exchange their current work, plans, knowledge and experiences. 
  • In other countries we are often working closely together with Ministries of Education (e.g. in Afghanistan, Namibia) and/or Ministries focusing on Sports, Culture and Health. Some projects are directly linked to Ministry Programmes, as is the case in Colombia ("Paz en Movimiento").
  • Different organisations of the United Nations are involved in our projects as well. For example, in Namibia, UNICEF is partner in our project focusing on the empowerment of girls and young women through sports.
  • In some countries our projects are closely linked to other GIZ programmes focusing on cross-cutting topics, such as health or education (e.g. in Turkey, Palestinian Territories).  Sharing knowledge and expertise create synergies for all on different levels, such as outreach to different target groups or expert workshops in combination sport.
  • Engagement Global is part of the Expert Group in S4D in Germany and the central contact agency in Germany for development policy initiatives, both at a national and international level. Since January 2012, Engagement Global unites institutions, initiatives and support programmes of development work with the aim to actively promote fair global coexistence.

Sport associations and sport clubs are “new partners” in development cooperation. As they are in every country, they provide access to relevant target groups - e.g. coaches and children/youth organized in club structures - that have been difficult to access or not reached until now.  They can channel their expertise into the training of coaches, spread the S4D approach and strengthen their international partnerships.

  • We are closely collaborating with the DOSB  (German Olympic Sports Confederation) in different countries, such as Turkey, Namibia and Uganda. The DOSB is the non-governmental umbrella organisation of German sport. The DOSB is the central organisation of 16 regional sports confederations, 63 national (sport-governing) federations and 20 sport associations with specific fields of action. Following the basic idea of “sport for all”, the DOSB develops programmes that are intended to give possibly each and every person access to sports, independently of his/her age, gender and social origin. In the light of its policy of gender equality, DOSB attaches great importance to the promotion of girls and women.
  • The Department of Coach Education and International Relations of the DFB (German Football Association) cooperates at the implementation level in different partner countries in the field of S4D, including in Brazil, Colombia, Jordan and Mozambique. The DFB is the governing body of football in Germany. A founding member of FIFA and UEFA, the DFB has jurisdiction on the German football league system and oversees the men's and women's national teams. The 21 state associations of the DFB have a combined number of more than 25,000 clubs with more than 6.8 million members.
  • In some partner countries the S4D projects are closely linked to national football associations, as in Namibia, Mozambique, Jordan and Indonesia. In other partner countries we are working in cooperation with German Sport Clubs as well. TSG 1899 Hoffenheim is engaged in the topic of ethically produced clothing as well as in projects that combine sports and environmental protection, such as in Namibia. For more information, see here.
  • In Uganda, we are working closely together with World Athletics, also in representation of the German Athletics Association (DLV), to promote social cohesion, education, vocational training, gender equality and healthy lifestyles for the local population and refugees through athletics. World Athletics, former International Association of Athletics Federations (IAAF), founded in 1912, is the umbrella organisation of all national sports associations for athletics. 

Private-sector companies can integrate sport into their site development plans or support quality physical education programmes and infrastructure projects as a way of demonstrating social responsibility.

  • In collaboration with Nike, the “Designed to Move” programme took place in South Africa and Brazil. The programme used schools as a hub for promoting positive physical experiences. The objective was to reach disadvantaged children and youth who might otherwise be excluded from physical activity and play.
  • Futouris e.V., the German tourism industry association promoting sustainable tourism, and the TUI Care Foundation, which supports sustainable tourism projects as part of the TUI group’s sustainability strategy, are partner in Namibia. The tourism project aims at providing girls and young women of the S4D project  with additional opportunities to broaden their education, skills and professional experience by vocational training in the field of tourism. More information you will find here.

In the field of S4D, there are already lots of national and international Networks that share their knowledge and mutually strengthen each other.

  • The global network streetfootballworld (sfw) is part of the German Expert Group in S4D and was a partner in the first S4D projects in Brazil. Sfw was founded in 2002 and unites more than 100 community organizations in Africa, Asia, Latin America, Middle East, North America and Europe with one common goal: changing the world through football. Sfw acts as a platform for local organization using football as a tool for social change to learn from each other.
  • In Brazil, a “Treino Social” working group was established within the REMS Network (Rede Esporte pela Mudança Social, Sport for Social Change). The representatives of the NGOs see their selves as multipliers that aim to scale-up the method “Treino Social” in different regions in the country.
  • Capacity development has been supported in seven municipalities of four Western Balkan Countries (Kosovo, North Macedonia, Albania, Serbia and Bosnia and Herzegovina) through different forms of local sport for development nets (L-S4D-Nets). The capacity building strategy of the programme in the Balkans is based on two main pillars: Cross-regional training of coaches, teachers, and youth/social workers as well as promoting local sports for development networks. The L-S4D-Nets approach allows for coordinated action and consistent messages. The local sport for development nets (L-S4D-Nets) approach in the Western Balkan region is described in an interactive roadmap. The aim of this publication is to present the approach and to capture the main learnings. The roadmap also serves as a practical and hands on working aid that supports other sport for development programmes in shaping their own local networking activities.
  • >> Roadmap

National as well as international NGOs (Non-Governmental Organisations) play a major role in the field of S4D. Most of them can draw on years of experience in working with children and youth as well as with regard to different topics, such as education and health.

  • Because of their long-term experience, the international NGO Right to Play (RTP) is part of the German Expert Group in S4D. RTP was founded in 1994 in Canada. In line with their motto “different types of play give children the opportunity to learn different things”, they work in different countries all over the world. CARE works in the field of S4D in an educational programme in Bosnia and Kenia.  
  • In many countries we are working together with local NGOs linked to local communities to develop and implement sport and physical activity programmes in the framework of the initiative (e.g. in Bosnia, Brazil and the Palestinian Territories).

Research Institutions, such as Universities, are important partners as they can analyse the field from a scientific perspective, meaning that they can support in any monitoring and evaluation activities and provide scientific expertise. Educational Institutions as partners, such as schools, teacher training colleges and universities, are important in order to establish S4D in educational systems. Setting up educational programmes at universities or establishing curricula in schools sustainable ways to spread the approach and methods of S4D.   

  • The German Sport University Cologne  (GSU) is Germany’s largest and most prestigious centre of teaching and research in physical education and sport science. Since 2013, the Institute of European Sport Development and Leisure Studies  of the GSU is involved as a scientific institution in consultation, monitoring and evaluation processes. The development, implementation and evaluation of empirical studies in different countries, as well as the development of theory-based foundation documents about S4D are, among others, tasks of the institute.
  • The International Council of Sport Science and Physical Education (ICSSPE) is the world’s largest network of organisations and institutions concerned with sport, sport science and physical education. Among others, the Council belongs to the associated bodies of UNESCO and co-operates with the sport movement. ICSSPE is part of the German Expert Group in S4D since 2014 and was involved in the scientific support at the beginning (2013-2016).
  • Local universities are important partners in two ways, namely by supporting curriculum development and conducting research activities. For example, in Mozambique our university partner established S4D in its curricula for PE students. In other countries they support in any research activities.


Monitoring and evaluation (M&E) of S4D interventions is high priority. Despite the shared conviction that sport can add value the development of individuals, organisations and communities, there is still a lack of substantial evidence to support the potential of sport. Effective, transparent and (if possible) comparable M&E must take place to enforce and determine the inherent benefits, risks and limitations of sport and physical activity (Reference: Here you can learn more about M&E as a fundamental part of every project cycle and how we are bridging the gap between activities and impacts. 

Our work at GIZ is systematically geared towards results. Our aim is to contribute towards long-term positive change in cooperation with our partners. M&E is therefore firmly mainstreamed in GIZ’s work. It is actively applied during the entire project cycle. M&E allows us to manage commissions effectively, develop a clear picture of the status of our projects, utilize promising approaches, and better grasp the lessons learned. Overall, it is an essential process to secure results and sustainably foster development (see M&E GIZ).

In this context, Monitoring is the systematic and routine collection of information. It allows the documentation of a project regarding its results, process and experiences. Through monitoring you can check the development (either positive or negative) of your project and ensure management of the project is effective. Also, monitoring data can be used for evaluation.

Evaluation is assessing, as systematically and objectively as possible, a project or programme after a certain time (e.g. mid-term, final or impact evaluation). Evaluations should help to draw conclusions about five main aspects of the intervention: its relevance, effectiveness, efficiency, impacts and the sustainabilty (Reference:, see more detailed information here). 

M&E should be an essential part of the cycle of a S4D programme/project and part of all activities on the ground. Within the framework of our S4D projects, M&E is always part of our work. In the Tools Section  you will find many M&E templates we already used in our practice. You can modify them according to your project's context and needs. 


Do you want to run an impact evaluation in the field of  S4D? 

If you want to measure possible impacts of your programme or intervention and if you want to apply scientific methods in your evaluation practice, the CD guideline below will support you doing so. 

It explains the different steps to conduct an impact evaluation. Besides that, it contains important information and links for setting up general M&E frameworks, such as defining targets and indicators. Through inputs and self-learning exercises you will learn how to implement an impact evaluation with a sport-specific approach. The document consists of the following seven steps:

  1. Get a common understanding
  2. Define targets and indicators
  3. Design tools
  4. Select and train interviewers
  5. Select survey sample
  6. Collect data
  7. Analyse data & write reports

The S4D Impact Indicator Frameworks (IIFs) advocate for a systematic and specific approach to measure the contribution of sport, physical education and physical activity to the SDGs. The frameworks are based on the competences that children and youth (13 – 16 years old) gain in different SDG-related areas and they are therefore designed for the programme or project level. The overall aim is to measure the contribution of sport activities to different SDGs. The IIFs are the theoretical basis for our impact studies we conducted. 

Here you will find exemplary questionnaire templates for your S4D impact study. Please keep in mind that they were developed in programme and country-specific contexts. So please feel free to make selestions, changes and modifications to fit your needs.

If you want to know more about on how to set up surveys and how to design instruments, have a look into STEP 3 of our CD guidelines "How to run an Impact Evaluation". 

Here you will find more detailed information on what is M&E about and why M&E is important, as well as what the differences are between actually performing monitoring and evaluation techniques.

In the context of M&E, GIZ seeks to build close partnerships with universities and research institutions to assess lessons learned from their S4D programmes. Though these partnerships additional findings are generated, presented and evaluated which help develop and improve the quality and effectiveness of the programmes. One cooperative relationship GIZ has regarding M&E is with the German Sport University Cologne (DSHS). Besides evaluating separate phases of the S4D programmes, the DSHS supports the GIZ in documentation and knowledge management processes, in networking, as well as in Public Relations measures. They additionally act as consultants due to their expertise in sport science. In terms of education and training, DSHS offers workshops to promote and to teach concepts related to the topic of M&E, e.g. to local partner organizations. The following presentations are examples of a M&E workshop held to local partner organizations in Namibia.

In the S4D Topic Collection and the S4D Country Collection you will find exemplarily M&E tools, developed by the DSHS, which are used in our programmes and projects in different countries and contexts. The S4D Tools for your Practice include several research tools for your own practice.


If you want to have additional information about S4D in general, the GIZ programmes in the field and the potential contribution to the SDGs, please have a look at the following publications.